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Qur’an 113:1: moongod according to Isaiah 14:12?

One of the ways to show Muslims that the Qur’an has verses that worship not in a clear way the Creator of heaven and earth is Qur’an 113:1: “Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn”. Dawn is part of the creation where the moon is still visible. Does the Bible warns against such practices in Isaiah 14:12?

Context of Qur’an 113:1

“Lord of the Dawn”. The original word for “Dawn”is in Arab: الْفَلَق (falaq), which can mean dawn or day-break. In Qur’an 113:1, Allah is called “Lord of the dawn”. This Arabic word is a name for the new crescent moon. In Qur’an 113:3 the meaning of falaq become clear: “And from the evil of the darkening (night) as it comes with its darkness; (or the moon as it sets or goes away)”. It is the moon that is disappearing, but is still visible. There is a Hebrew word related with it: הֵילֵ֣ל (helel), connected הלל (halal), and means “to shine”. The corresponding Greek word is ἑωσφόρος, which means "Lucifer", "son of the morning" or "of the dawn" [1].

Son of the dawn in Isaiah 14:12

There is a remarkable link between “Lord of the dawn” in Qur’an 113:1 and the Hebrew words in Isaiah 14:12 “son of the dawn”: “How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!” The Hebrew word for “Lucifer” is הֵילֵ֣ל (helel) and means “new moon”. The Arabic word for new moon is “hilalun” and is very close to this Hebrew “helel” [2]. Therefore, we may read instead of “Lucifer”: “new moon” and we can compare his word with the Arabic “new moon” in the Qur’an. “Son of the morning” in Isaiah 14:12 is in Hebrew בֶּן־ שָׁ֑חַר (ben sahar). In Semitic languages חַרשׂ means “moongod”, also called “newmoon, son of (old) moon” [3]. Some scholars showed that it is the character and identification and not just a name [4]. Instead of “Son of the morning” we may read “moongod”.

Biblical prophecy about the “son of the dawn”

Isaiah 14:12 warns about “Lucifer”, the “son of dawn”, that corresponds to the “Lord of the dawn”, a name of Allah in the Qur’an. “Son of the morning also means son of the dawn”. The Bible refutes the “son of the dawn”: “And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, who deceives the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him” (Revelation 12:9). This implies that the “Lord of the dawn”, one of the names of Allah in the Qur´an is refuted. Jesus said: “And He said unto them, “I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven” (Luke 10:18).

Conclusion

The Qur’an supports many parts of the Bible and Islam may claim to be a religion with traceability to the prophet Abraham. However it cannot be denied that the Qur’an contains influences from pagan Arabic religion. One of them can be found in Qur’an 113:1, which contains a worship practice from the time before Muhammad. The pagan Arab moongod with the name “Allah” has been worshiped many centuries before Muhammad. The prophet Isaiah has warned against such a moongod in Isaiah 14:12. Therefore there is a Biblical warning against the practices in the Qur’an, the foundation of Islam.

Notes

  1. George Buchanan Gray, Critical and exegetical commentary on the book of Isaiah I-XXVII, T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1975, 255.
  2. John D.W. Watts, Word Biblical Commentary, Volume 24, Isaiah 1-33, Word, Waco, 1985, 210.
  3. Ibid.
  4. P. Grelot, Isaie XIV 12-15 et son arriere-plan mythologique, in: Revue de l’histoire des religions, Paris, 1956, 149.

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